I. Từ vựng topic "environment"
II. Từ vựng topic "water"
1. Topic "water" nói chung
1.1. Từ vựng
- Dehydrated (adj): mất nước # hydrated
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:
- if you don’t drink water, especially when doing exercises like this, you’ll be dehydrated, and you know, water is actually really good for you.
Without water, human beings would die just 3 days, and you know, the human body is made up of 70% of water; therefore, it’s indispensable. That’s why I go to great lengths to drink at least 1 litre per day to stay hydrated. Another factor that is important is that water would definitely keep your skin smooth, healthy and glowing.
IELTS TUTOR giải thích:
- Go to great lengths = go to any lengths = to try very hard to achieve something: cố gắng hết sức để làm gì đó
- Hydrated adjective /haɪˈdreɪ.tɪd/: havingabsorbed enough water or other liquid: đủ nước
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ:
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Water prevents muscle cramps, especially when you do sport activities like we, and then it also prevents fatigue so that your body will not overwork.
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: The effect of water-fasting really helps ease constipation, and then it gives your body a whole body reboot, and your body will feel light again after a long time of eating different kinds of food
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Firstly, water is one of the most important substances on earth. If there were no water, there would be no life on earth.
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: For example, plants need not only sunlight or carbon dioxide but also water to perform photosynthesis generating food and energy for the trees.
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Secondly, humans themselves need potable water so as to maintain their lives and other daily activities like cooking or washing.
- Hinder (verb=Make it difficult for (s.o) to do something or for (s.th) to happen=Cản trở
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Charging drinking water may hinder the access to clean water amongst low-income population, which can result in the increased mortality rates, especially infant mortality rates.
- Mortality rate (compound noun)=the same as death rate=Tỷ lệ tử vong
- Take s.b/s.th for ranted (phrase)=to be so used to somebody/something that you do not recognize their true value anymore and do not show that you are grateful=coi ai đó/cái gì đó là đương nhiên, coi là dĩ nhiên
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: If water is free, people will take it for granted. For this reason, the amount of clean water wasted is likely to skyrocket and very soon water sources will run out completely.
- Misuse (verb)=Use (something) in the wrong way or for the wrong purpose=sử dụng sai mục đích
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Paying for pure water can prevent residents from overusing and misusing the water effectively.
- Run out (of s.th) (phrasal verb)=to use up or finish a supply of something=hết cái gì đó
- Overuse (verb)=Use too much=sử dụng quá nhiều
1.2.1. Water nói chung
- I need to drink some water
In my country, it’s not advisable to drink tap water. This is primarily because it has come through rusty metal pipes which may be contaminated and unsafe to drink. That’s why some people choose to buy bottled water despite the expense. However, in my family, we often drink boiled water. It maybe time-consuming, but we are accustomed to the taste.
- IELTS TUTOR giải thích: Bottled water noun /ˌbɒəld ˈwɔː.tər/:water that is sold in bottles and that has been treated in order to make it very clean or that comes from a special place, for example a spring: nước đóng chai
- I only drink water when I feel like there’s an urge to drink.
- For women, it usually ranges from 2 to 2.50 liters, and for men I think it’s about 3 to 3.5. However, you shouldn’t drink too much because if you drink too much and too suddenly, you can get poison as well because of the huge intake.
- Juice and other kinds of soft drinks contain a huge number of calories which will gain too much weight. They also contain a lot of sugar and also contain quite a lot of cafein, which will lead to body to dehydration way more quickly.
- Because we go out and exercise a lot, so it’s really good to drink a lot of water before working out along with preliminary exercises, for your muscle to cool down as well.
- From drinking a lot of water you can keep your skin more hydrated and smooth, like all the celebrities
Well, I don’t know if this counts but I am partial to (= enjoy) drinking Coconut water a few times a week because it has tremendous nutritional benefits. It’s an effective beverage to drink because it can cool you down on a scorching summer day. In addition to this, it even works well when you are suffering from a hangover or so I’m told.
I still clearly remember one time I went on a long walk in the countryside with some friends. We were stuck in the middle of nowhere and all three of us had left our bottles in a car. Needless to say, we were all rather parched (= extremely thirsty).
- IELTS TUTOR giải thích: Parched adjective /pɑːtʃt/=(especially of earth or crops) dried out because of too much heat and not enough rain: khô cằn, khát nước khủng khiếp
1.2.2. Importance of Clean Water
- Water is as necessary natural resource;
- Humans need access to clean, safe drinking water in order to live;
- Poor water quality is a major cause of disease and death in some countries;
- Developing countries often lack the means to treat and supply water to citizens;
- Drinking water is not contaminated by sewage or wasted water;
- The supply of clean water would improve public health in many developing countries.
1.2.2. Water Supply
Urban life would be impossible without water supply systems;
- Many professionals are involved in their planning, construction and maintenance;
- The supply and distribution of water are major concerns;
- Water is becoming scarce in some countries;
- As populations grow, there is more pressure on water supplies;
- This could lead to a water crisis.
1.2.3. Water and Politics
- The supply of water is also an important political issue;
- Huge amounts of water are needed for agriculture and industry;
- A water crisis could lead to political conflicts or even wars.
1.2.4. Argument: Water should be Free
- Some people believe that water should be free for everyone;
- Governments should supply water to all homes at no cost;
- Money from taxes can be used to pay for water supply systems.
1.2.5. Argument: Water should not be Free
- If water is free, people take it for granted;
- They do not think about how much water they waste;
- If we have to pay for water, we will use it more responsibly;
- Water supply systems are extremely expensive;
- Private companies may provide a better service than governments;
- If they provide an efficient service, they will make more money;
1.2.6. Bottled Water: Opinions
- Some people carry bottles of water wherever they go;
- For example, they take bottles of water to work or to the gym;
- They believe that bottled water is healthier than tap water
- IELTS TUTOR giải thích:
- Tap water noun /ˈtæp ˌwɔː.tər/: thewater that comes out of the taps in a building that are connected to the main supply of the local water system: nước vòi
- IELTS TUTOR giải thích:
- Plastic water bottles add to litter and waste problems;
- Companies should not be able to make a profit from water;
- There is no difference in quality between bottled and tap water.
2. Topic "water scarcity" nói chung
- Water scarcity = the same as ‘water shortage’ = sự thiếu nước
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: The first cause of water scarcity is overusing and misusing water.
- Prolonged drought = the drought that lasts for a long time = hạn hán dài
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Another reason for the lack of drinking water is the prolonged droughts taking place in many parts of the world.
- Water contamination (noun) = ô nhiễm nước
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: The final culprit is water contamination, which prompts the water undrinkable.
- Undrinkable (adj) = Not fit to be drunk because of impurity or poor quality = không thể uống được
- Access to something (noun phrase) = the opportunity or right to use something or to see somebody/something = tiếp cận được với cái gì
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Without access to clean water, people are likely to be prevented from having proper sanitation.
- Sanitation (noun) = the equipment and systems that keep places clean, especially by removing human waste = hệ thống vệ sinh
- Waterborne disease (compound noun) = Disease can be spread while bathing, washing or drinking water, or by eating food exposed to infected water = các bệnh lây lan qua nước thông qua việc tắm giặt hay ăn uống đồ ăn có nhiễm nước bẩn
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: This could lead to some waterborne diseases. In many places, lack of water is responsible for many deaths every year.
- water crisis (compound noun) = used to refer as water shortage = khủng hoảng nước
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Another effect of water crisis is that it could lead to political conflicts or even wars because in order to facilitate industrial process or agricultural activities, there needs to be an enormous amount of water.
- political conflict (compound noun) = the conflict related to politics = mâu thuẫn chính trị
3. Topic "water pollution" nói chung
3.1. Từ vựng
- Poor-quality (phrase) not good=chất lượng kém
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: For example, poor quality drinking water is the major cause of diseases and deaths in some countries.
- Industrial waste (compound noun) the waste produced from industrial processes=chất thải công nghiệp
- Domestic sewage (compound noun) wastewater from households=nước thải gia đình, nước thải sinh hoạt
- Leak into something (of a liquid or gas) to get in or out through a small hole or crack in something=rò rỉ, rỉ ra, rò ra cái gì
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Firstly, industrial waste and domestic sewage leaking into the water supply system is likely to contaminate the water used for drinking.
- Water supply system (compound noun) the network that provides water for communities=hệ thống cung cấp nước
- Water purification system (compound noun) the system or machine that help purify water used for drinking=hệ thống lọc nước
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Secondly, low quality potable water is possibly the result of the poor water purification systems in some countries.
- untreated hazardous waste: các chất thải nguy hại chưa qua xử lý
- a wide range of pollutants: một loại các chất gây ô nhiễm
- a freshwater crisis: một cuộc khủng hoảng nước ngọt
- to safeguard water supplies: bảo vệ nguồn cung cấp nước
- water treatment plants: nhà máy xử lý nước
- spills and leaks from oil pipelines: tràn và rò rỉ từ đường ống dẫn dầu
- Sewage leakage (compound noun) the amount of sewage leaking=rò rỉ nước thải sinh hoạt
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Government should pay attention to construct reliable machine systems for purifying water used in households and at the same time sewage system should be improved so as to prevent sewage leakage.
- to degrade water supplies: làm suy giảm nguồn cung cấp nước
- to contain fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides: chứa phân bón, thuốc trừ sâu và thuốc diệt cỏ
- harmful contaminants: chất gây ô nhiễm có hại
- to be released into the environment: bị thải ra môi trường
- to end up in landfill sites: tập kết ở các bãi rác
- a proper waste management system: hệ thống quản lý chất thải thích hợp
- Water filtration=the same as ‘water purification’=sự lọc nước
- IELTS TUTOR xét ví dụ: Each household should also be aware of the importance of drinking clean water and have a water filtration product at home.
3.2.1. Causes of water pollution
The dumping of industrial waste/ domestic waste ∼ the discharge of harmful substances into…: Việc thải chất thải công nghiệp / chất thải sinh hoạt thải chất độc hại vào …
- dump untreated hazardous waste into rivers, streams…: thải chất thải nguy hại chưa được xử lý vào sông, suối,…
- improper sewage disposal/ do not have a proper waste management system/ imperfect water treatment plants: xử lý nước thải không đúng cách / không có hệ thống quản lý chất thải thích hợp / nhà máy xử lý nước không hợp lý
The overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides: Việc lạm dụng phân bón hóa học và thuốc trừ sâu
- agricultural run-off containing pesticides → pollute rivers, streams,…: nước thải nông nghiệp chứa thuốc trừ sâu → làm ô nhiễm sông, suối, …
- pollutants are carried across or though the ground by rain or melted snow → this run-off contains fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides: các chất ô nhiễm ngấm xuống đất do mưa hoặc tuyết tan chảy → dòng chảy này chứa phân bón, thuốc trừ sâu và thuốc diệt cỏ
Mining and drilling: hoạt động khoan và khai thác mỏ
- use acid to remove coal from the surrounding rocks → acid is washed into streams + rivers → release chemical substances: sử dụng axit để loại bỏ than từ các tảng đá xung quanh → axit được rửa trôi vào suối + sông → giải phóng các chất hóa học
- to pose a serious hazard to aquatic organisms: gây nguy hiểm nghiêm trọng cho các sinh vật sống dưới nước
- to result in human health problems, long-term ecosystem damage: dẫn đến các vấn đề sức khỏe của con người, thiệt hại hệ sinh thái lâu dài
- people drinking contaminated water → be exposed to hazardous chemicals → diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, polio: người uống nước bị ô nhiễm → tiếp xúc với các chất hóa học nguy hiểm → bệnh như tiêu chảy, dịch tả, kiết lỵ, bại liệt
- IELTS TUTOR giải thích: Contaminated(adjective) /kənˈtæɪ.neɪ.tɪd/: bị nhiễm bẩn
- marine creatures mistake garbage for food: sinh vật biển nhầm rác với thức ăn